Saturday, February 23, 2019
Consumption of Luxury Food: Essay
1. entering This chapter upshot serve as an introduction to the im epoch of prodigality forage consumerism in Harrods Patisserie and bakeshop fodder Hall. It exit gauge client loyalty incentives, pricing and hype around its sumptuosity food. 1. 1 Overview of Harrods and postgraduate life food consumerism Harrods penetrates 1. 2 million squ be feet of terrain, in the very(prenominal) heart of one of London, Englands most p easingigious atomic f atomic number 18 18as, Knightsbridge. The historical architectural landmark, along with the Egyptian Escalator, which was envisioned by Mr. Al-Fayed himself, is listed by English Heritage.With no less than seven floors devoted to the finest- type international brands, as well as a sumptuous feed Hall that is like no other. It is no wonder that Harrods attracts almost 15 million people through its doors every year. (http//factoidz. com/harrods-the-famous-british-landmark-department-store-changes-ownership-in-2010-and-remains- out-of-british-hands/) The United Kingdom and many parts of the E. U subscribe been experiencing tiresome growth and development. However, according to information from this website which statesHarrods says its Knightsbridge site is Britains largest shop, selling an set about of fashion, food and opulence goodsQatar Holdings bought Harrods from Mohamed Al-Fayed for a reported ? 1. 5 billion in conclusion May. (www. fasttrack. co. uk) This could just now excite been possible if profits had a successful enter track rate. In 2010, sales in Harrods received ? 519. 8million, leaving Harrods with a profit of ? 86. 5million (www. fasttrack. co. uk) As consumer wealth increases, so does the demand for much premium, take to be added products as opposed to cost-reduced commodity products. The situation is partly created by an progressively generous society and a widening gap with the divide of well-situated and middle class in the current recession.There ar various factors in fluencing change. In the UK 10% of the population is currently throttled as affluent this figure is expected to rise to 30%. www. foodbytesni. com/text. doc The EU oddity food market (as opposed to the premium food market) is worth 33. 5 billion (4. 6% of issue forth EU food & drink spend). In Britain and Ireland it is valued at 6. 1 billion (4. 5% of total food & drink spend). It is forecasted to grow to 7. 5 billion in 3 years. It is normally get alongn that yester twenty-four hourss lavishness becomes nows necessity. opulence tends to be r ar and expensive.With the above profit figures, the enquiryer puke nevertheless assume that Harrods appears to be the winner in the Patisserie and bakehouse Market. With the definition of pauperization completely divers(prenominal) in the western world to the ratio of penury in developing countries, luxuriousness inhalation of Patisserie and bakery is considered trendy and its demand in Harrods is ever growing. Although we may assume that sumptuousness foods argon related to income, during this current recession in the UK with dwindling income, the demand for Harrods high life Patisserie and bakehouse foods has increased over this period of judgment of conviction.I cast discover this as the investigator is employed in Harrods food production unit. Although, the habitual scenario for other departmental stores may be to reduce prices during recession, Harrods luxuriousness Patisserie and bakeshop foods have retained its prices and popularity. In fact with the VAT increase from 17. 5% to 20% the sales in this partitioning of the food halls has shown no reckon(ip) downturn. Hence, it is my opinion that demand is so great for Harrods Luxury Patisserie and bakehouse that consumers of any income group consider Harrods to buy even the lowest cost highlife Patisserie and Bakery foods which has been a contributing factor.Harrods is globally known as unique, as it has an association with class, toni city and distinguishes itself from the rest of its competitors. This theater of operations is limited to just now respondents above the age of 18 years and testament only be carried out on 30-50 respondents. The get wind is narrowed to consumers of Harrods Patisserie and Bakery products and not consumers of the rest of the food halls. The study result not cover the life personal manner and overall economic standard of the respondents. This has been consciously left out to neutralise lengthening of the study.Hence, the study depart be un adequate to analyse the pecuniary background of the respondents in depth. Lastly, although high life food consumption is a macroeconomic function, this study pass on only focus on a remarkable market. 1. 2 look for Questions 1. Is the recession affecting Consumption of Luxury Food in Harrods Foods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall? 2. What are the get wind aspects or areas of consumer spending behaviour patterns in Patisserie and Bakery Food Halls, Harrods? 1. 3 Objectives of the Research The objectives of the study are as followsA) To investigate customer consumption and spending behaviour with luxury Patisserie and Bakery foods in Harrods. B) To cook up recommendations to Harrods on how to enhance their sales and maintain their market share in luxury Patisserie and Bakery foods. 1. 4 How will the objectives be achieved? Objective (A) will be achieved through examination of thirdhand info. Objective (B) will be achieved through findings of primary data through the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data through Harrods food industry annual reports. CHAPTER TWO literary productions Review 2. Introduction.This chapter will show the existing lit in the champaign of Consumer doings from a global perspective and narrow it down to consumer behaviour in Harrods, UK. It will include trade concepts, psychological concepts and factual statistics. The luxury market is vastly increasing, and there have been si gnifi set up buoyt changes towards consumer behaviour (Strauss & Howe, 1999). Foods that are expensive have a certain appeal and are regarded as luxuries for special occasions rather than cursory meals. Conversely, foods that are widespread and cheesy have less appeal.Europe is considered to be the cultural center of fashion, indoor design, and cuisine. Gourmet cooking has become a fine art, and visitors to the area can find almost any type of food, and the trend more tardily has become luxury foods, luxury desserts etc. http//www. food touristry. com/ From the literature I have read it can be summarized that the current generation enjoys spending money on luxury brands imputable to disposable income and lifestyle that this generation avails of due to their income or that of their parents earning. 2. 1 A theory of luxury.When Marie Antoinette supposedly said let them eat cake, she was seen as a luxury junkie whose out-of-control spending grated on the poor and unfortunate Frenc h people. only when today, cake has become one of the favourite luxury foods. A re refreshingal has taken place where individuals in the world have got richer. Luxury is no longer the embrace of the kings and queens of France but the mass marketing phenomenon of common life. Simply put, luxury has become luxuri? cation of the common place (Tw bumbleell, 2001 Berry, 1994). 2. 2 Definitions of luxury products, speciality and premium foods.In army to understand a luxury product, it is inseparable to differentiate it from ordinary products on the basis of its essential characteristics. Luxury products, speciality and premium foods are defined by their price, quality, aesthetics, exclusiveness, and symbolic significance. To define them, their definitions are summarised below. 2. 2. 1 Luxury products Luxury is defined as quality possessed by something that is excessively expensive http//ardictionary. com/Luxury/5550 As they are extremely associated with their core products, common definitions of luxury brands refer to specific associations with their products.The essential characteristics of luxury brands and so correspond largely with those of luxury products. Consequently, their definition can be derived from that of luxury products as follows Luxury brands are regarded as images in the minds of consumers that comprise associations about a high level of price, quality, aesthetics, rarity, extraordinarily and a high degree of further non- structural associations (c. f. Heine 2010). As luxury products and brands include a high rating for their characteristics this marks a differentiation for luxury manufacturers. regular amongst luxury products there are differences such as accessible luxury products, which are affordable for most consumers from time-to-time and some are exclusive luxury products, which are affordable only for the wealthy. 2. 2. 2 Specialty or bon vivant foods. Specialty or gourmet foods are unique foods/delicacies, which sometimes guess for regional identity. They are less authentic than workman products. ( workman C, 2005) 2. 2. 3 subvention foods. Premium products use quality ingredients and careful systems but can be do on an industrial scale. ( artisan C, 2005) 2. 2. 4 End Product.Products made by discoverer have optimum taste, texture, and flavours or aromas, (and nutrition/health benefits). They go with place, tradition and culture (authenticity), and reflect the producer, his/her skill, personality and ethos, and the method of production. They a good deal have an established and stable reputation. Often they are made for fresh consumption locally, or are available in limited quantities, providing a unique, exclusive set about (often including the leverage e. g. at a market/direct with the producer). They therefore also have a high prestige factor and high profile with respect to the quantity produced and distributed.Producers of artisan products are usually hands-on from production through to sales. They are very experienced, skilled and show an uncompromised freight to their craft, trade and to the superior taste of their products. Often there are slender total of people making any one kind of artisan product. (Workman C, 2005) 2. 3 Food touristry During the 20th Century, industrialisation began to threaten artisan producers and many abandoned their traditional techniques. But in the past twain decades, theres been a resurgence in demand for quality products made by time-honoured methodsFood tourism has become grownup business, worth nearly ?4bn a year. (Lane M,2005) Food has many roles to play for consumers it is functional (sustaining life) it plays a key role in our celebrations it is a conduit for socializing it is entertain it is sensuous and sensual and it is a way of experiencing new cultures and countries. For many, food becomes highly experiential (i. e. much more than functional) when it is part of a travel experience, it can become sensuous and sensual, symbol ic and ritualistic, and can take on new significance and meaning.Even the most basic meal can be etched in memory forever when it is eaten when surrounded by atrocious scenery or at the end of a special day exploring a new city. (Hall M and McIntosh 2000) Swarbrooke and Horner have stated that food tourism stakeholders such as restaurant and cafe owners, cookery school raisers, feast organizers, hotel and resort managers, bed and breakfast operators, and food producers. By understanding how tourists track down their closes to leverage and/or consume food products we will be able to gain a better understanding of when we need to intervene in their decision-making ferment.Appropriate intervention can, in turn, be utilize to persuade them to purchase our food products and services. Consumer behaviour research is the study of why people, either separately or in groups, buy the product they do and how they make their decision (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999). Food tourism is someth ing that is becoming more commonly understood. But how would individual decide where to go, and what to see? http//www. foodtourism. com/ Tourists who enjoy luxury food and patisserie generally make every attempt to at least visit Harrods while in the UK.Often, like the researcher at the visit first to Harrods tourists only visit and see, but, at their second visit at least a bantam amount of luxury food or patisserie is purchased. Although, consumer spending has slowed down in the UK, Harrods has shown an increase in profits in their Patisserie and Bakery partitioning with its luxury food items. 2. 4 Consumer buying behaviour Kolb M. (2006) associates Maslows theory and consumer get as she states Maslows theory has a direct application for marketing because many of these needs are met through the purchase of products.Infact, once a consumer has all the food, clothing and shelter they need, all other purchases are made to meet higher needs. Thus, the researcher can state that i n order to meet some part of ones self esteem needs, UK and international consumers may be relating to Harrods luxury Patisserie and Bakery food to experience self actualization and thus for Harrods this has created a niche. The interest in premium, enduringness and artisan products is also influenced by the static growth in population, which has lead to a static growth in overall grocery sales.In this situation, foods that command a premium price and higher margins become the only growth sector, and therefore become the target of multiples. Artisan, specialty and premium foods are therefore gaining broader distribution in the multiple sell sector. Workman C (2005) 2. 5 Consumer buying Trends The growth of specialty fine food is referable to Increasing consumer affluence as consumer wealth increase, so does the demand for more premium, value added products as opposed to cost-reduced commodity products10% of population in UK is defined as affluent this figure is expected to rise to 30%.When it does premium food, including specialty food is expected to account for 45% of total food sales in UK. The specialty market is worth ? 4. 2 b in UK and has grown from 20% from 3. 5 bn in 2003. British fine food consumers spend ? 900 per year on fine food. Workman C ( 2005) CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3. 1 Introduction This chapter discusses the different aspects involved in the methodology use to conduct the present study of Consumption of Luxury Food in Harrods Foods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall.It highlights methodological approaches which will allow area of the Research study in a sustained process of planning and design. The consideration of the process will influence the choice of methods and approaches that will be presented. This chapter, for that reason contains a discussion of the research excogitation, research approach, research strategy, data battle array methods, data analysis and quality standards. 3. 2 Research Purpose Yin (1994) states that research decision can be grouped and classified as exploratory, descriptive or informative.Exploratory research is conducted to clarify the nature of a problem, where the purpose is to provide insights and understanding, not to provide conclusive evidence. Exploratory research is conducted with the expectation that later(prenominal) research will proceed (Zikmund, 2000Bryman,1989). An exploratory study method is use when the aim is to develop proposition of future research (Yin,1994). A descriptive research is used when the major objective is to describe something, such as population or a phenomenon. It seeks to answer who, what, where and how questions. In a nutshell, it does not give the explanation of the cause of the findings.However, when solving a business problem, it is often enough with the information obtained from describing a situation and it is not required to know why things are the way they are (Zikmund,2000). In order to answer a descriptive research, the researc her must have prior friendship of the problem situation and the information needed is clearly defined. In fact, this is the major difference between exploratory and descriptive research, as well as that the descriptive research must be structured and the methods for the selecting sources of the information and aggregation data are pre-planned and formal (Malhotra,1996).In explanatory research, the emphasis is on studying a situation or a problem in order to explain the relationship between variables (Saunders et al. ,2000). According to McNabb (2008) typical objectives for explanatory research include explaining why some phenomenon occurred, interpreting a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more variables, and explaining differences in two or more groups responses. The purpose of this Research employment is to gain an understanding of Harrods success inside its luxury food service specifically their Patisserie and Bakery department Food Hall, Knightsbridge, London, UK.I n order to achieve this objective, the Research Study will need to consider three core elements which will be how Harrods conducts their design, implementation and evaluation strategy of the customer. Since the aim of the research is to describe how Harrods operates within the Luxury food service industry, the study is descriptive in nature. 3. 3 Research Approach According to Zikmund (2000) research can be conducted in different shipway and includes both a theoretical and a methodological approach.The theoretical approach can either be deductive or inductive, and the methodological approach is qualitative or numerical (Zikmund 2000) 3. 3. 1 qualitative versus three-figure Research Zikmund (2000) further states that when collecting information, either qualitative or quantitative data can be collected. Qualitative approach may consider the following methods for gathering information like Participant Observation, Non-participant Observation, arena Notes, Reflective daybooks, Stru ctured Interview, Semi-structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, and Analysis of documents and materials.In contrast, quantitative methods for research techniques include gathering of quantitative data, like information dealing with numbers which is measurable. Statistics, tables and graphs, are generally used to present the results of these methods. They are distinguished from qualitative methods. The study, under focus is quantitative using an exploratory design. This kind of method is widely used to gain familiarity with a phenomenon that is not adequately explored. The researcher feels the need to explore this issue since there is not much data relating to Consumption of Luxury Food in Harrods Foods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall.3. 4 Sampling Techniques The universe will comprise of unreserved random sampling method to select samples. This will alter the researcher achieve the desired information. According to Kumar (2008), this type of sampling is also as chance samplin g or probability sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal change of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples, in sheath of delimited universe, has the same probability of being selected. To select the sample, each item in this research study will be assigned a number from 1 to 100.The sample survey will cover respondents in the age group of 18 years and above only. This will ensure that the respondents are old enough to understand and answer questions in the interview schedule. 3. 5 Population The sample size of this study is intended to be 30-50 respondents, in the age group of 18 years and above. The study will have to be completed in Harrods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall, Knightsbridge, London. The population will only include consumers and purchasers from the above food hall. 3. 6 Research InstrumentsFor the purpose of this research study both primary and secondary data pertinent to this topic will be used. Without the use of bot h instruments the research study will not verify facts and the scope of analysis if not used together will not make the research interesting. 3. 6. 1 native Data Primary data for this research study will result from firsthand experience with the use of questionnaires for preliminary gathering of data. Questionnaires will be prepared prior to in-depth interviews with respondents at Harrods. 3. 6. 2 Secondary Data Sources.For the scope of this research study Secondary Data Sources will include literature review with sources from the library, web, and surveys. Other secondary sources of data will be sourced and will include thesis, newspapers and internal company reports. 3. 6. 3 Data Collection Instruments This section will include the 30-50 respondents completing a questionnaire. The interview schedule will be prepared on the basis of study objectives and aims with structured blossom ended and close ended questions. Section A may cover income, Section B may cover types of Luxury fo od and section C on consumption of luxury food.3. 6. 4 Interviews At the time of the respondents completing the questionnaire the researcher will interview the respondents. This approach will enable the researcher gain a better comprehension of consumer spending on Luxury Food items in Harrods. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0 PROPOSED ANALYSIS This chapter will highlight the Research plan as it will outline the travel for conducting the research in terms of description, timing and presentation. It will be used as a guide to execute and monitor the project which will enable the researcher to achieve the purposes of the research.The data collected will be analysed and presented diagrammatically in tables and charts. This will then enable empirical findings to be compared. In order to carry out statistical analysis of the quantitative data obtained, the Statistical Package for cordial Studies (SPSS) and Microsoft Word software will be used to develop a comprehensive and flexible statistical analys is and data management for the research. This will enable a sphere of tabulated reports, graphs, pie charts, and analysis. 4. 1 Schedule.Planned activities March April May June July Topic Selection X X Literature Review X X Meeting with sort X Meeting with Supervisor X X X X Seek Permission from Harrods X Write up Questionnaire for data collection X Data Collection at Harrods X Analysis of data & Findings X X X Write up of Dissertation Introduction X Write up of Dissertation Overview X Drawing up summary and conclusion X Proof Reading X presentation of Research X Final Submission X .CHAPTER FIVE pass judgment OUTCOMES The results of this research will provide a specific insight for Harrods Patisserie and Bakery Food Hall into consumer behaviour, trends and patterns. Secondly, the research findings and recommendations may enlighten Harrods on ways to continue to stay on top of the market in any economic climate as a global brand. Lastly, the findings may inveigle Harrods to create a more vigorous forecasted marketing strategy to supply to its tourist and local trends throughout the year.References & Bibliography Alpert, J.I. and M. I. Alpert (1990). Music influences on mood and purchase intentions. Psychology & Marketing 7 109-34. Aghazadeh, S. -M. (2005). Layout strategies for retail operations A case study. Management Research modernistics 28(10) 31 46. Berry, C. J. (1994) The Idea of Luxury, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Baumann, D. J. , R. B. Cialdini, et al. (1981). Altruism as hedonism helping and self-gratification as equivalent responses. daybook of Personality and Social Psychology 40 1039-46. Batra, R. and O. T. Ahtola (1991). amount the hedonic and utile sources of consumer attitudes. Marketing garner 2 159-70. Babin, B. J. and W. R. Darden (1994). Work and/or fun? Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research 26(4) 644-56. Babi n, B. J. and L. Babin (2001). Seeking something different? A nonplus of schema typicality, consumer affect, purchase intentions and perceived shopping value. Journal of melodic phrase Research 54(2) 89-96. Beardon, W. O. , R. G. Netemeyer, et al. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of Consumer Research 15 473-81. Bellizzi, J. A. and R. E. Hite (1992). environmental color, consumer feelings, and purchase likelihood. Psychology & Marketing 9(5) 347-63. Bone, P. F. and P. S. Ellen (1999). Scents in the marketplace explaining a element of olfaction. Journal of retailing 75(2) 243-62. Bagozzi, R. P. , J. A. Rosa, et al. (1998). Marketing Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. , Prentice-Hall. Dubois, B. and Duquesne, P. (1993) The Market for Luxury Goods Income versus Culture, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.27, No. 1, pp. 34-44. Fast Track in Association with the sunshine Times. 2011 Buyout Track 10 Biggest. operable At http//www. fast track. co. uk/fasttrack/leagues/dbbtDetails. asp? siteID=61&compID=737&yr=2011(Accessed on 9. 04. 2011) Hofstede, G. (1980), Cultures Consequences International Differences in Work-Related Values, Sage, currentbury Park, CA. Hofstede, G. (1997), Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind. LondonMcGraw-Hill. Hitt, J. (1996).The theory of supermarkets. New York Times Magazine 56-61. Heine, K. (2010) A Theory-based and Consumer-oriented Concept of Luxury Brands, Presented at the In Pursuit of Luxury Conference, London, 18 June 2010. Hall M, McIntosh (2000) GlobalSpec. Chapter 3 Consuming Tourists Food Tourism Consumer Behaviour Available at http//www. download-it. org/free_files/file1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132P ages%20from%20Chapter%203. pdf (Accessed on 15. 05. 2011) http//ardictionary. com/Luxury/5550.(Accessed on 08. 05. 2011) http//factoidz.com/harrods -the-famous-british-landmark-department-store-changes-ownership-in-2010-and-remains-out-of-british-hands/ (Accessed on 09. 05. 2011) Kumar, V. and R. P. Leone (1988). Measuring the effect of retail store promotions on brand and store substitution. Journal of Marketing Research25 (2) 178-85. Kumar R. C. Dr (2008). Research Methodology. S. B Nangia for APH publishing corporation, New Delhi, India. Kolb M B, (2006), Tourism Marketing for Cities and Towns. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Laband, D. N. (1991). An objective measure of search versus experience goods. Economic wonder 14 497-506. Laaksonen, M. (1993). Retail patronage dynamics learning about daily shopping behavior in contexts of changing retail structures. Journal of Business Research 28(1/2) 3-174. Lichtenstein, D. R. , N. M. Ridgway, et al. (1993). Price Perceptions and Consumer Shopping Behavior A Field Study. Journal of Marketing Research 30(2) 234-245. Lewison, D. M. (1997). Retailing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. , Prenti ce-Hall. Lane M,2005. A taste for gastro-tourism. BBC News Magazine. Available at http//news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/magazine/4245534. stm (Accessed on 09. 04. 2011).Malhotra,N. K (1996). Marketing research an applied orientation, 2nd edition. New Jersey Prentice-Hall Inc. McNabb, D. E (2008). Research Methods in Public Administration and Non Profit ManagementQuantitative and Qualitative Approaches. 2nd edition. M. E Sharpe Inc, New York, U. S. A. Nicholls, J. A. F. , F. Li, et al. (2002). The seven year itch? Mall shoppers across time. Journal of Consumer Marketing 19(2) 149 165. Nicholls, J. A. F. , S. Roslow, et al. (1997). Time and companionship key factors in Hispanic shopping behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing 14(3) 194-205. Pyle, J.F. (1926). The Determina tions of Standard of Layout for Retail Concerns. The University Journal of Business 4 328-347. Simonson, I. and R. S. Winer (1992). The influence of purchase quantity and uncover format on consumer preference for variet y. Journal of Consumer Research 19 (1) 133-8. Stassen, R. E. , J. Mittelstaedt, et al. (1999). form overlap its effect on shopping patterns in a retail market when the distributions of prices and goods are known. Journal of Retailing 75(3) 371-86. Spiesa, K. , F. Hesseb, et al. (1997). Store atmosphere, mood and get behavior. International Journal of Research in Marketing 14(1) 1-17. Swarbrooke and Horner, (1999). Tourism Consumer behaviour. Butterworth-Heinemann ,Oxford and Boston. Tomkins, R. (1999), bill forward GenerationY Advertisers are adopting alternative tactics to try to appeal to todays teenager, The Financial Times, 28 December, pp. 11. Twitchell, B. J. (2001) Living it Up, Columbia University Press, New York. Triandis, H. C. (1998), Vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Advances in International comparative Management, Vol. 12, pp. 735. Wong, Y. N. & Ahuvia, C. A.(1988), Personal taste and family face luxury consumption in Confucian and Western S ocieties, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 15 (August) No. 5, pp. 423-441. Wakefield, K. L. and J. J. Inman (2003). Situational price aesthesia the role of consumption occasion, social context and income. Journal of Retailing 79(4) 199-212. Workman C (July 2005). Market Report -The Artisan Bakery Sector In The United Kingdom, Commissioned By Invest Northern Ireland. Available at www. foodbytesni. com/text. doc (Accessed on 9. 04. 2011) Yin, R. K (1994). Case Study Research pattern and Methods. 2nd edition.