Saturday, March 9, 2019
Analysis around Freuds view of the human mind Essay
This essay aims to discuss the key ideas behind Freuds theories, including his get of the mind, psycho cozy development, repression and cure through therapeutic techniques. Sigman Freud (1856 to 1939) was an Austrian physician, with an interest in the workings of the sub conscious(p) mind. Freud spent his life trying to produce dogged a set of theories to explain all human behavioural, but never achieved his goal of one grand theory, (Benson, 1999, P48).According to Freud, the mind has three levels of consciousness. The conscious equates to 1/7th of the mind, being the awareness we have when awake. The pre-conscious, is a barrier containing memories of dreams, and causing slips of the tongue. Finally, the unconscious. Making up 6/7ths of the mind and containing thoughts completely enigmatical and unavailable to us, (Benson, 1999, P47).Freuds model divides the mind in to three move the Id, ego and Superego. He believed that the first to develop was the Id, operating on the spor t principle, in the unconscious mind. The Id is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, (Freud, 1933 p27). It drives a baby to try pleasure, standardized drink food warmth and comfort and avoid the unpleasureable, like hunger, being wet and c onetime(a) The Id is selfish and not concerned with companionable rules, but only with self bliss, (Cardwell et al, 1997 p549). The Id is made of two components. Benson (1999, P51) describes the first, Libido, as the inhering energy we have that motivates us to survive. The second component, Freud named Thanatos, and described as the termination instinct, expressed through aggression towards self and others. Cardwell et al (1997) explain that the Ids discharge of energy and excitation without regard for consequence is known as primary process thinking.At nearly two years old the human mind recognises the need to be realistic and plan for the future, kind of than surviving on primary instinct. Thus the ego develops. Operating on t he reality principle, it battles the Id for control of behaviour. Unlike the Id, the Ego has a partly conscious, supplementary thought process. The ego is still, even so, essentially selfish, i.e. protecting the individual from harm, (Benson, 1999, p51).At around 3, we start to absorb influence from our parents and the Super Ego begins to develop. The Super Ego expands from our learned m literals and the conventions of society. Super means above looking subject and monitoring the Id-Ego Battle, (Benson, 1999, P52). Like the Ego, the Super Ego is partly conscious however it is not selfish and considers others too. As it develops it becomes our social conscience and guides us towards sociably acceptable behaviour. (Cardwell et al, 1997, p549).Freud was responsible for modern societys understanding of the personal effects boorhood experiences can have on adult personalities. He infract the childhood into five stages of psychosexual development.During the first, the Oral stage fr om 0 to 2 years, the only drive present is the Id. Focused on survival, the Id drives the baby to dedicate by suckling. Thus the mouth becomes the main source of pleasure. Benson (1999, p52) states that through oral satisfaction the baby develops trust and an optimistic personality.From 2 to 3 years, the child becomes aware of its bowels and how to control them. Here begins the Anal Stage, as the focus of gratification shifts to the anus aiding with potty training, a vital step to independence and survival, (Benson, 1999, P54). However, withholding body waste goes against the Ids nature of random discharge without regard for consequence. This results in the fate for an ego to develop, and as such has important implications in the personality ulterior in life, (Cardwell et al, p550, 1997).The phallic stage, from 3 to 5 years, starts when children become aware of sexual differences and become curious about their own genitals. Benson (1999) explains that boys will develop other th an to girls from here on. Boys will develop Oedipus Byzantine and unconsciously experienced a sequence of sub stages. Firstly he will develop a strong desire for his mother. Then, after noticing the strong (sexual) bond between her and his father, he will become deeply jealous of his father and hate him.The boys fear of his father uncovering these thoughts instils a fear of the net punishment, castration. The boy resolves that to avoid castration by pleasing his farther, and at the alike time impress his mother, he must become like his father. This is called identification. Girls, having unconsciously concluded that they have already been castrated, do not develop the same fears. Though, since their mother is the same, girls also end up identifying, i.e. adopting their mothers righteousness and gender roles. This was always rather vague and known as the Electra Complex (Benson, 1999, p56).