Tuesday, March 5, 2019
EYMP 1 Context and Principles for earlyish on Years prep 1. 1 Explain the legal status and principles of the relevant opposite(a) forms frame wees and how national and local guidance materials argon applyd in tantrums. Children deserve and need the trounce realizable start in their lives in array for them to fulfil their full potential in their breeding and emergence (Terry, 2009). A happy, salutary and computer backupive tykehood go forth champion fryren to touch the trounce that they possibly bathroom (Smeyers and Wring, 2007).In 2003 the Laming Report was pen following a rattling serious case of kid ab example involving a little girl c on the wholeed Victoria Climbie who was physic eithery ab apply by her great aunt and a nonher(prenominal) adult male. The abuse was so bad, a doctor bear on in Victorias post mortem stated that in that location re on the wholey is not all(prenominal)where that is sp ard there is scarring entirely over the body. Th e report then goes on to explain how the local governance relate in the vexation of this teenage girl were to blame for her death, as there was evidence of deliberate persecute and nothing was done.Similar essay Approaches to Promoting Wellbeing and ResilienceThe local friendly operate department dealing with her case closed it on the day that she died. pursuance the Laming Report the government green paper was written in 2003 all(prenominal) Child Matters (electronic countermeasures). The aims of this were to reduce the occurrences of fostering failure, ill health, abuse and neglect, teenage pregnancy, internality misuse and crime and anti-social conduct among tikeren and recent peck. It a kindredly gave tikeren a office and allowed them to decide what they exigency by creating the five bycomes, which argon * Being healthy Staying safe * Enjoying and achieving * Making a confident(p) contri thation * Economic public assistance The Children Act 2004 alterd th e E real Child Matters to be established and was written succeeding(a) in coif to bear the legislative spine on which the repossess of minorrens run is based. It aims to reform and integrate kidskinrens services, elevate early intervention, provide strong leadership and bring unneurotic unalike sea captains in multi-disciplinary teams in order achieve overbearing outcomes for tiddlerren and junior sight and their families. (Surrey County Council, 2004) adjoining came the Child superintend Act 2006 which gave a new role to local authorities in the improvement of the E actually Child Matters outcomes, providing childc be for tameing fires and providing agnatic intimacy services (DoE, 2012). This act as well as introduced the inspection of child bursting charge premise and the registration of childc atomic number 18 wrenchers as a moldiness (OFSTED, 2012). This was then, when the implementation of the EYFS came into looseness of the bowels.The Early Years ba sis Stage was brought in to achieve the five ECM outcomes and it did this by * Setting the standards for chance oning and c ar received in child c atomic number 18 engrafttings * Providing for e prime(prenominal) of hazard and ensuring that all practice is anti-discriminatory and all children atomic number 18 include in activities despite culture, race, religion and gender * Working in confederacy with levys and also corroborateing multi-agency wagering to discipline the perplex up likely procreation and c be for children * Improving role and consistency to smash all child cargon settings a universal set of standards that moldinessinessiness(prenominal) be followed and also giving the right to deliver all settings inspected * pose a furbish up arrangeation for distributively childs future use uping and reading to be planned somewhat the childs item-by-item need and concerns (DfCSF, 2008)There argon six areas that are covered by the EYFS and they musti ness all be taken in to account as they are very historic in each childs increment. These areas are * Personal, social and ruttish increment * Communication, language and literacy * Problem-solving, reasoning and numeracy * Knowledge and encountering of the institution * Physical explainment * Creative development (Meggitt et al, 2011) The 4 themes of the EYFS bluelight how we apprize help children to develop and con and be intimate their childishness, these are * A whimsical child- this looks at all children being equal conducters and having their own unique slipway in which they like to curb and look. Children should be elevated to be esilient, cap fit, assured and confident in order to be competent get a lineers from birth. * Child exploitation- babies and children are all contrary and therefore countenance antithetical ways in which they learn scoop out. Children also learn at varied rates and approximately need extra back raven. This looks at all areas of development including social, emotional, tangible, cognitive and spiritual. * inclusive practice- this is very important to allow children to feel that the diversity of their families and communities is noteed and that no children are discriminated a drop waterst. * Keeping Safe- the vulnerability of young children need to be protect to enable them to develop resilience.This keep be done by the adults that care for them protecting their somatogenetic and psychological well-being. * Health and wellbeing- a childs health is a fundamental part of their social, emotional, environsal and spiritual well-being. all in all of these areas contri onlye to and highlight the aims and the role that EYFS plays in the development and learnedness of all children in early eld settings. As childcare nonrecreationals we must use all of the resources within the EYFS in our daily practice, including using it when intend, when detect children and linking what we elate to aspects of the EYFS, to develop policies and procedures within our setting, to update our childcare practice and to reflect on our catamenia practice. 1. Explain how different surfacees to work with children in the early years shit influenced current formulation in the UK. In the past there incur been people that have had theories that relate to child development and development of children in childcare settings these people are known as educational pioneers and are well extoled as their theories have changed childcare for the let on (Meggitt et al, 2011). Friedrich Froebel(1782-1852), the great German educator, is famous pre-eminently for his radical insight that the setoffly study experiences of the very young are of crucial importance in influencing not only their later educational achievements scarcely also the health and development of federation as a whole (Weston, 1998).Friedrich Froebel had the idea that children learn best by gist of play and by having real experien ces and from these theories he was the collapse of the first ever kindergarten in 1840 (Meggitt et al, 2011). Following the theory that children learn best by mean of play, Frobel introduced toys that he called, Froebel Gifts or gaben which included balls, wooden blocks, rings, tiles and sticks which were all the expose elements of Froebels kindergarten (Watson, 2002). Froebels ideas are very similar to those that construct the EYFS that all childcare suppliers use today. here(predicate) is a circumvent showing a summary of his ideas and how they are similar to and link with the EYFS Froebel EYFS Schools should be closely involved with parents and that they should be welcome to join their children in their learning and development. Creating the material for confederacy working betwixt parents and professionals, and mingled with all the settings that the child attends atom 1- Introduction- Purpose and Aims of the EYFS 1. 2 (p. 7)Positive Relationships describes how childre n learn to be strong and fissiparous from aBase of sweet and secure relationships with parents and/or a recognize person. The commitmentsare focus around respect league with parents documentation learning and the role of theKey person. instalment 1- Introduction- A principled Approach 1. 11 (p. 9)Creating the Framework for Partnership Working 1. 16 (p. 10) Parents were the first educators for their children and that childcare providers working with parents will benefit the child greatly, be form they know them snap off than anyone. The EYFS sets standards to enable early years providers to reflect the rich and personalisedExperience that many parents give their children at home. Like parents, providers should deliverindividualised learning, development and care that enhances the development of the children inTheir care and gives those children the best workable start in life. Section 1- Introduction- Setting the Standards 1. 13 (p. 9) culmination working amid early years p ractitioners and parents is vital for the identification ofChildrens learning unavoidably and to ensure a quick response to any area of particular difficulty. Parentsand families are central to a childs well-being and practitioners should leap out this importantRelationship by sharing deposeation and offering bide for extending learning in the home. Section 1- Introduction- Creating the Framework for Partnership Working 1. 16 (p. 10) Children needed to have some succession interiors and outdoors to enable them to have experiences with affectment, games and the study of nature outdoors. The physical development of babies and young children must be however by means of theprovision of opportunities for them to be active and interactive and to improve their skills ofCoordination, control, manipulation and movement. Section 2- The acquisition and increase Requirements- Physical nurture 2. 15 (p. 15)Children must be support in developing the fellowship, skills and saying thatHelp them to bugger off champion of the instauration.Their learning must be supported by offeringopportunities for them to use a range of tools safely encounter creatures, people, plants andobjects in their natural environments and in real-life situations undertake practical experimentsAnd work with a range of materials. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Knowledge and Understanding of the sphere 2. 13 (p. 14) The introduction of finger play, singing and rhymes into education. The encouragement of humanistic discipline and crafts, including literature along with a numerical ensureing. Singing songs, moving and dancing. Childrens creative thinking must be wide by the provision of support for their curiosity, exploration and play.They must be provided with opportunities to explore and share their thoughts, ideas and feelings, for example, through and through a contour of art, music, movement, dance, chimerical and role-play activities, mathematic s, and design and technology. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Creative Development 2. 17 (p. 15) Children should have the emancipation to move around and have healthy sensible food to eat. The physical development of babies and young children must be encourage through theprovision of opportunities for them to be active and interactive and to improve their skills ofCoordination, control, manipulation and movement. They must be supported in using all of their senses to learn somewhat the world around them and to make connections between new tuition and what they already know.They must be supported in developing an pick uping of the importance of physical body process and making healthy choices in relation to food. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Physical Development 2. 15 (p. 15)Where children are provided with meals, snacks and drinks, these must be healthy, equilibrize andNutritious. Section 3- The offbeat Requirements- Safeguardi ng and Promoting Childrens Welfare (p. 27) The use of symbolical behaviour within a childs play. Imaginative play was also important and children should pretend and imagine things to show their highest level of learning. Explores different media and responds to a variety of sensory experiences. Engages inrepresentational play. Appendix 1- Creative Development (p. 8)Childrens creativity must be extended by the provision of support for their curiosity, explorationand play. They must be provided with opportunities to explore and share their thoughts, ideas and feelings, for example, through a variety of art, music, movement, dance, fanciful androle-play activities, mathematics, and design and technology. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Creative Development 2. 17 (p. 15) The use of activities such(prenominal) as modelling with clay, drawing and making collages were profitable in imaginative play. Expresses feelings and preferences in response to artwork, dram a and music and makes somecomparisons and think between different pieces.Responds to own work and that of otherswhen exploring and communicating ideas, feelings and preferences through art, music, dance, role-play and imaginative play. Appendix 1- Creative Development (p. 48) Encouragement of playing with toys, such as wooden blocks, balls, etc. Finds out more or less and identifies the uses of eachday technology and uses info andcommunication technology and programmable toys to support her/his learning. Appendix 1- Knowledge and Understanding of the World (p. 47)Experiments with a range of objects and materials showing some mathematical awareness. Appendix 1- Problem Solving, reason out and Numeracy- Shape, Space and Measures (p. 47) Children should be allowed to play freely (free-flow play). on-going observational assessment to inform think for each childs continuing developmentthrough play-based activities. Section 1- Introduction- Laying a Secure Foundation for Future Le arning 1. 18 (p. 10) (Meggitt et al, 2011) (DfCSF, 2008) maria Montessori (1870-1952) was an Italian doctor who began her work with children with learning difficulties (Montessori, 2004). She was much more(prenominal) focussed on learning through being taught in a organize way, sort of than the theory previously discussed of Froebels, learning through play (Meggitt et al, 2011). During her studies she found that Froebels theory was based more along the philosophical get wind, rather than the scientific aspect of a childs learning and development (Montessori and Gutek, 2004).She came to the conclusion that children were active learners and that they passed through sensitive periods of development whilst being peculiarly responsive to certain areas of learning (Kramer, 1976). Montessoris theories link with the EYFS because her regularitys provide an modify environment for supporting the learning through the commitment of children within the care of the facility. Here is a tabl e showing a summary of female horse Montessoris ideas and how they link to the EYFS * Structured teaching programme based on observing children with learning difficulties. * Challenging the difficulties by giving the child a task that they are unable to do, in the hope that they basis learn to do it- relates to EYFS Card 4. Play and exploration * The use of didactic materials to encourage children to use their hands. * Working alone rather than with parents, instructors, carers- this encouraged children to bugger off free-living learners. * Polarisation of the financial aid is where the child is completely silent and focussed on what they are doing- relates to EYFS Card 4. 3- Creativity and critical thinking * Children should learn as part of a graded learning sequence and not through play. Play was allowed once children had completely their learning. * Children are active learners and should learn through role play, working with others, etc. relates to EYFS Card 4. 2- Activ e learning (Meggitt et al, 2011)Margaret McMillan used ideas similar to both Froebel and Montessori. She began looking at manual dexterity exercises, similar to those used by Montessori. But as she upholdd her work, she used more and more of Froebels ideas, so they were much more relative to the EYFS. Here is a table of her ideas and how they relate to the EYFS McMillan EYFS First-hand experience and active learning are important. Relationships, ideas and feelings are equitable as important as physical aspects such as moving and learning. Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual of necessity areMet and when they have positive relationships with the adults care for them.The welfarerequirements are designed to support providers in creating settings which are welcoming,safe and stimulating, and where children are able to enjoy learning through play, to grow inConfidence and to fulfil their potential. Section 3- The Welfare Requirements- O verview of the welfare requirements (p19)Positive Relationships describes how children learn to be strong and independent from aBase of loving and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person. The commitmentsare focused around respect partnership with parents supporting learning and the role of theKey person. Section 1- Introduction- A Principled approach (p. 9) Children bewilder whole people through play and play helps them to apply their knowledge and understanding to life. On-going observational assessment to inform planning for each childs continuing development through play-based activities. Section 1- Introduction- Laying a secure foundation for future learning (p. 10)None of these areas of Learning and Development can be delivered in isolation from the others. They are equally important and depend on each other to support a round approach to child development. All the areas must be delivered through planned, purposive play, with a balance of adult-led and child-ini tiated activities. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Overview of the learning and development requirements (p. 11)Childrens creativity must be extended by the provision of support for their curiosity, exploration and play.They must be provided with opportunities to explore and share their thoughts, ideas and feelings, for example, through a variety of art, music, movement, dance, imaginative andRole-play activities, mathematics, and design and technology. Section 2- The Learning and Development Requirements- Creative Development (p. 15) Close partnership with parents is important and parents should be encouraged to develop alongside their children. Creating the framework for partnership working between parents and professionals, and between all the settings that the child attends. Section 1- Introduction- Purpose and aims of the Early Years Foundation Stage 1. 2 (p. )Positive Relationships describes how children learn to be strong and independent from aBase of l oving and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person. The commitmentsare focused around respect partnership with parents supporting learning and the role of theKey person. Section 1- Introduction- Purpose and aims of the Early Years Foundation Stage 1. 11(p. 9) Nursery checks should be an extension of the home environment and should be welcoming to both parents and children. They should enable children to experience fresh air, trees, rock gardens, vegetables, herbs, fruit trees, sandpits, flowers, lawns and the wilderness. Suitable premises, environment and equipmentOutdoor and indoor spaces, furniture, equipment and toys must be safe and satisfactory for their purpose. Section 3- The Welfare Requirements- the usual welfare requirements (p. 20)Wherever possible, there should be access to an outdoor play area, and this is the expectedNorm for providers. In provision where outdoor play space cannot be provided, outings should be planned and taken on a daily basis (unles s luck make this inappropriate, for example unsafe weather conditions). Suitable premises, environment and equipment (p. 35) Children cannot learn if they are undernourished, unwell with health problems or sufferingly looked after. Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual necessitate areMet and when they have positive relationships with the adults caring for them.The welfarerequirements are designed to support providers in creating settings which are welcoming,safe and stimulating, and where children are able to enjoy learning through play, to grow inConfidence and to fulfil their potential. Section 3- The Welfare Requirements- Overview of the welfare requirements (p. 19) These different theorists have contri plainlyed massively to the ways that our government produces their mandate in order to maintain a safe, healthy and educational environment for children to be cared for (Taylor and Field, 2003). 1. 3 Explain why early years framewor ks strain a personal and individual approach to learning and development Valuing childrens individuality, ideas and feelings is an important aspect of developing a personal and individual approach to learning and development (Meggitt et al, 2011).What we do for the children in our care must be child centred and the child is key in all decisions made close their care and education (Sinclair, 2006). All children are different and the EYFS talks to the highest degree a unique child which highlights this point. It recognises that every child is a competent learner right from birth and that they can be resilient, confident, capable and self-assured (DfCSF, 2008). There are different categories of needs that a child whitethorn have, which are * Universal needs- these are fundamental to all children as they are their basic needs including food, drink and shelter. If these are not being met a child will struggle to construe any urther needs, such as education (Super and Harkness, 1986). * Psychological needs- these include love, affection, stable relationships and friendships, intellectual stimulation and emancipation (Meggitt et al, 2011). These are vital to children as they maintain a childs quality of life be making them feel self-worthy and loved (Harter, irrigate and Whitesell, 2008). * Developmental needs- these are what the child needs in order to develop further educationally (Shelton, 1987). It can be difficult to meet the developmental needs of all children in our care, as they whitethorn be at different stages of development therefore it is best to work as a group but to focus individually on each child (Eccles, 1999).The childs age, intellectual abilities, emotional development, social skills, experiences, physical abilities and relationships must all be key aspects when working with children to assist with their specific developmental needs (Meggitt et al, 2011). The EYFS states that Children are competent learners from birth and develop and lea rn in a wide variety of ways. All practitioners should, therefore, look carefully at the children in their care, pick out their needs, their interests, and their stages of development and use all of this information to help plan a challenging and enjoyable experience across all the areas of Learning and Development. (DfCSF, 2008)When working with children using the EYFS, we value a childs individuality by considering their ability, personality feelings and ideas to enable us, as childcare workers, to provide an sound learning environment. We have to take into consideration that the rate in which children learn and develop can differ therefore we must position our approaches to each individual childs abilities. We must recognise and meet each childs needs considering their age, physical maturity, intellectual ability, emotional development, social skills, past experiences and relationships with others. In order to meet the childs individual needs, we must observe children in play to establish their current ability. 3. Explain the partnership model of working with carers The parent is a profoundly important person to the child, and the relationship between parent and child is evermore very emotional (Meggitt et al, 2011). As childcare providers we must develop relationships with children and babies in our care that are consistent, affectionate and warm and this must then be coherent with working in partnership with parents to provide the best quality care and education for these children (Sinclair and Grimshaw, 2006). It is important to remember that the relationships childcare providers have with the children in their care are very different to those that children have with their parents (Lamb, 1999).One of the main aims of the EYFS is to pee the framework for partnership working between parents and childcare providers in order for us to identify and conductress the needs of the child (DfCSF, 2008). As childcare professionals we must remember that all fa milies are different and therefore will have different needs and indispensablenesss for themselves and their children (NCMA, 2009). Most parents will always want the best for their children but some quantifys are not sure what is the best and whitethorn ask for guidance (Rosenbaum et al, 1998). The only experiences we have of family life are our own, therefore we must respect the values and methods that families have and understand that different parents bring up their children in different ways (David, 2003).Parents will a comfortably deal be open to suggestions from childcare professionals if they awaitk some guidance but we must not force them to do as we say and must respect their wishes (Curtis and OHagen, 2005). Parents have the right to bring their children up as they please, although we whitethorn not agree with their methods (Forehand and Nousiainen, 1993). Here are some examples of different parenting methods * Permissive Parenting- the parents allow the child to do a s they please. Childcare providers must have ground rules in place for children to maintain order and calm, but if the child has not been taught that they must abide by rules, this could prove very difficult for the childcare provider and other children. Authoritarian Parenting- the parents are very controlling of the behaviour of their children and children must do exactly as they say. This can be difficult for childcare providers, especially if they are asked by the parents to continue rules that are in place in the family home that the childcare provider does not agree with. * Uninvolved Parenting- the parent is neglectful of their child and allows them to be unkempt, dirty, hungry and not meet their basic needs. This is a safeguarding issue and the childcare provider must report this to the appropriate agencies. * Democratic Parenting- the parent sets draw boundaries for the child and shows them physical affection. This would be the way in which many of us will conduct the care of children. (Robinson et al, 1995)A very important part of an effective relationship and partnership between childcare professional and parents is trust. Parents may have had previous experiences where they have been let down by somebody involved in the care of their child and therefore gained their trust is important to be able to communicate, in order to provide the best possible care and education of the child (Meggitt et al, 2011). The partnership model of working with parents and carers is therefore a mix of all the above points- respect, trust, information gathering and sharing. We can promote this by lecture to parents and discussing each childs day with parents and carers. 3. 2 Review barriers to participation for carers and explain ways in which they can be overcome.The partnership between parents and child care professionals is a viable and internal way to increase the developmental opportunities for children (Christianson, 2003). Weve talked about the importance of pa rtnership with parents, but this can go wrong, as there are barriers to effective partnership working. Here are some examples of barriers and how they can be overcome * Parents can often feel guilty or sad about deviation their child and may feel like they are missing out on their child growing up. This may make them feel insane that others may judge them for leaving their child, especially if they leave them to enable themselves to have a break and do something for themselves. It is important to make the parent understand that what they are doing is not wrong and nothing to feel guilty about.Focus on some of the positive aspects that the child will be having whilst in a childcare setting, for example, the experiences they will have and the friends they will make. Give the parents some sources of support that will be able to help them through this emotional time. (ways2work, 2010) * close and language can be a barrier as our society grows to be more and more multi-cultural we com e across different people from other cultures, some that may not use English as their first language and may not speak any English at all. This can be overcome by using translating devices such as Google supply to communicate and also be used to translate written policies and procedures, which can be printed out and given to parents. The same can be done for news garners, emails, letters, handover books, etc.This way, the partnership between the parent and childcare professional is not affected because the inability to communicate. (Joint Improvement Team, 2009) We must ensure that parents understand the legal requirements for our landed estate and their rights and responsibilities. This may be different in their country and if it is not explained in the first instance, this could prove a difficult situation. * contrastive methods of parenting can cause barriers in partnership working as they may be clash with how the childcare provider cares for children in their setting. For ex ample, a parent may use the permissive parenting method which can cause problems like the child not following rules and doing exactly what they want.If a parent uses the authoritative, this could cause problems because the parent may want the childcare provider to continue their rules from home, which they may not agree with. These can be overcome by ensuring that parents understand the ground rules, policies and procedures before their child starts attending a setting. This way, difficulties can be overcome and the parents wishes are respected. A parent may use the uninvolved method of parenting, which could mean children dont understand boundaries that are set and they can become withdrawn from the rest of the children in the setting. This can be overcome by explaining to parents the importance of routines and consistency. Hubbs-tait et al, 2008) * Parents may become defensive if they are approached about something that is causing problems for their child. As childcare providers w e must communicate with parents if we have any concerns about children to provide the best possible care and education. This can be overcome by being open, comprehendible and having a friendly attitude. (McClure, 2012) 3. 3 Explain strategies to support carers who may defend positively or negatively to partnership opportunities. There are a number of different ways that childcare professionals can have nice partnership with parents to enable parents to choose the one that suits them best (Meggitt et al, 2011).Here is a table showing some of the ways in which childcare professionals can work in partnership with parents and the positive and negative aspects of them Ways to work in partnership Positive Negative Learning Journeys- a continuous journey through which children build on all the things they have already go through and come across new and interesting challenges. Every childs learning journey takes a personal path based on their own individual interests, experiences and th e political platform on offer (Hutchin, 2007). * Learning journeys with photos and comments are a great way to show carers all of things that their child has been doing as well as charting their advancement. * We might invite the parent to come into the setting to have a look at the learning journey or we may send it home. * Parents that are not so enthusiastic about their childs learning may not find this method very useful, as they may not want to read through the learning journey. Parents that do not have enough time may not like this method either. Handover books- a book that goes home for parents to add to, then comes back to the setting for the childcare professionals to write in. Usually estimable superior general information about the childs day is written in this book. * Parents and childcare professionals are communicating regularly about the progress of the child. * Any trends in the childs behaviour can be identified easily by just looking back through the book. I f parents are in a hurry pick up or moultping off they may not always want to have a verbal handover, therefore the handover book is much easier as the parent can read it later when they have more time. * Parents may not find it easy to write down things about the child- may not know what to write. * Parents may not have time to write down things and a quick chat when dropping off or picking up may be quicker and easier. Verbal handover- when parents or carers drop off or collect the child they may just want to verbally handover how the child has been or if there is anything that the childcare professional may need to know. * Quick chat is beneficial for parents that have little time before and after work. Parents may find it easier just to have a chat rather than writing information. * Builds trust and friendship between parents and childcare professionals. * Things are not documented therefore there is no inference that something has been said if you may need it for any pro blems that could possibly occur. * Information may not be understood by either party. Newsletter- a letter containing information about topics that are being covered within the setting, any special activities or trips coming up, holidays, new children starting and just general information that parents may need to know. * Fun and informal way of communicating important information. * Parents may think it is information that is not important and may not read it. Partnership with parents can be effective but there may be occasions where it can be particularly challenging. As a childcare professional it is important to remain positive about the situation and not give up. Information must be shared with parents by whatever means necessary, whether they reciprocate or not. 3. 4 Explain how effective multi-agency working operates within early years provision and benefits children and carers. When working in a caring profession we have a responsibility and a duty of care to the people we are looking after. This means that we must care for them to the best of our ability (Rostgaard and Fridberg, 1998).In order to care for children effectively we must aim to meet all of their needs. As a childcare professional we may not have the knowledge to meet each individual need of the child as it may well be out of our expertise. This is when we must call upon another professional and work together with them to help the child (Sloper, 2004). For multi-agency working to be effective, good communication skills are needed by all professionals involved (Easen, Atkins and Dyson, 2006). The information shared must be relevant and only shared on a need to know basis to protect the confidentiality of children and their families (Richardson and Asthana, 2005).Childcare professionals must gain consent from parents regarding the information sharing between other professionals, unless there is a possibility of a child protection issue, then this can be overruled. When sharing information with other professionals we must be organised and professional so that we are able to give, receive and record accurate information to ensure that the childs care is not compromised by poor information sharing (Watson, Townsley and Abbott, 2002). Multi-agency working and partnership with parents are the key factors in good quality care for children. However, partnership with parents can sometimes be difficult but as childcare professionals we must remain positive and not give up as the important thing is to ensure information is given to parents or other professionals by whatever means necessary.Eymp 1EYMP 1 1. 1 Every child deserves the best possible start in life and the support that enables them to fulfil their potential. Children develop speedily in the early years and a childs experiences between birth and age five have a major stupor on their future life chances. A secure, safe and happy childishness is important in its own right. Good parenting and high quality early learn ing together provide the foundation children need to make the close of their abilities and talents as they grow up.The Early Years Foundation Stage framework sets the standards that all early years providers must meet to ensure that children learn and develop well and are kept healthy and safe. It promotes teaching and learning to ensure childrens school readiness and gives children the broad range of knowledge and skills that provide the right foundation for good future progress through school and life. The guidance materials are used to ensure settings provide quality and consistency in all early years settings, so that every child makes good progress and no child gets left fag a secure foundation through learning and development opportunities which are planned around the needs and interests of each individual child and are assessed and reviewed regularly partnership working between practitioners and with parents and/or carers equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory p ractice, ensuring that every child is included and supported. The EYFS framework specifies requirements for learning and development and for safeguarding children and promoting their welfare. . 2 Here is a list of different approaches Reggio Emilia Montessori viridity midpoint Reggio Emilia The Reggio Approach gets it name from its place of origin, Reggio Emilia, a city determined in Emilia Romagna in Northern Italy. After the Second World War, Loris Malaguzzi, a young teacher and the founder of this unique system, joined teams with the parents of this share to provide child care for young children. Over the last 50 years, this education system has developed into a unique program that has caught the attention of early childhood educators worldwide.Of special interest is the emphasis on childrens symbolic languages in the context of a project-oriented curriculum. The Reggio Emilia approach is made possible through a carefully articulated and collaborated approach to the care and education of young children. Here are the key points of the Reggio Emilia Community support and parental involvement Administrative policies and organisational features instructors as learners The role of the environment long projects as vehicles for learning The hundred languages of children Community support and parental involvementTraditions of union support for families with young children comes from Italys cultural view of children as the joint responsibilities of the state. The parents role is the same as the communitys, at both school wide and the classroom level. Parents have to take part in discussions about school policy, child development concerns and curriculum planning and evaluation. Because most parents are employed meetings are held in the evenings so that all who want to take part can do so. Administrative policies and organisational featuresA head administrator reports in a flash to the town council, who works with a group of curriculum team leaders, each of t hem coordinates the efforts of teachers from 5 or 6 centres. Each of these centres is staffed by two teacher per classroom, in which there is 12 children in infant classes, 18 in toddlers classes and 24 in pre-primary classes, one teacher trained in arts who works with classroom teachers in curriculum development and documentation and several(prenominal) auxiliary staff. There is no principle, and there is not a stratified relationship between teachers.This staffing plan along side with the policy of property the same group o children and teachers together for the 3 year period, facilitates the sense of community that characterises relationships between children and adults. Teachers as learners The teacher is considered a co-learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor. Teachers are encouraged to facilitate the childs learning by planning activities and lessons based on the childs interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively savory in t he activities alongside the child, instead of sitting back and observing the child learning.Teachers long-term commitment to enhancing their understanding of children is at the root of the Reggio Emilia approach. Their oppositeness to the American use of the term model to describe their program reflects the continuing evolution of their ideas and practices. They compensate for the meager preservice training of Italian early childhood teachers by providing extensive staff development opportunities, with goals determined by the teachers themselves. Teacher autonomy is evident in the absence of teacher manuals, curriculum guides, or achievement tests.The lack of externally imposed mandates is joined by the desperate that teachers become skilled observers of children in order to inform their curriculum planning and implementation. When working on projects with the child, the teacher can also expand the childs learning by collecting data such as photographs, notes, videos, and conversa tions that can be reviewed at a later time. The role of the environment The organization of the physical environment is crucial to Reggio Emilias early childhood program, and is often referred to as the childs tierce teacher.Major aims in the planning of new spaces and the remodeling of old ones include the consolidation of each classroom with the rest of the school, and the school with the surrounding community. The importance of the environment lies in the belief that children can best create meaning and make sense of their world through environments which support complex, varied, sustained, and changing relationships between people, the world of experience, ideas and the many ways of expressing ideas. The pre-schools tend to be filled with indoor plants and vines, and overflowing with natural light.Classrooms open to a central piazza, kitchens are open to view and access to the surrounding community is assured through wall coat windows, courtyards, and doors to the outside in each classroom. Long-term projects as vehicles for learning The curriculum is characterized by many features advocated by contemporary research on young children, including real-life problem-solving among peers, with numerous opportunities for creative thinking and exploration. Teachers often work on projects with clarified groups of children, while the rest of the class engages in a wide variety of self-selected activities typical of preschool classrooms.The projects that teachers and children engage in are different in a number of ways from those that characterize American teachers conceptions of unit or thematic studies. The topic of investigation may derive directly from teacher observations of childrens impromptu play and exploration. Project topics are also selected on the basis of an schoolman curiosity or social concern on the part of teachers or parents, or serendipitous events that direct the attention of the children and teachers. Reggio teachers place a high value on their ability to improvise and respond to childrens predisposition to enjoy the unexpected.Regardless of their origins, successful projects are those that generate a sufficient amount of interest and uncertainty to provoke childrens creative thinking and problem-solving and are open to different avenues of exploration. Because curriculum decisions are based on developmental and sociocultural concerns, slender groups of children of varying abilities and interests, including those with special needs, work together on projects. Projects begin with teachers observing and questioning children about the topic of interest.Based on childrens responses, teachers introduce materials, questions, and opportunities that provoke children to further explore the topic. While some of these teacher provocations are anticipated, projects often move in unanticipated directions as a result of problems children identify. Therefore, curriculum planning and implementation revolve around open-ended and of ten long-term projects that are based on the reciprocal nature of teacher-directed and child-initiated activity. All of the topics of interest are given by the children.Within the project approach, children are given opportunities to make connections between prior and new knowledge while engaging in accredited tasks. The hundred languages of children As children proceed in an investigation, generating and testing their hypotheses, they are encouraged to depict their understanding through one of many symbolic languages, including drawing, sculpture, outstanding play, and writing. They work together toward the resolution of problems that arise. Teachers facilitate and then observe debates regarding the result to which a childs drawing or other form of representation lives up to the expressed intent.Revision of drawings and of ideas is encouraged, and teachers allow children to repeat activities and modify each others work in the collective aim of better understanding the topic. Tea chers foster childrens involvement in the processes of exploration and evaluation, acknowledging the importance of their evolving products as vehicles for exchange. (Source www. reggiokids. com and Children and Young Peoples Workforce, Meggitt, Kamen, Bruce, Grenier) Maria Montessori She began her work as a doctor in one of the poorest areas in Rome, in the blood of the 1900s.She worked with children with learning difficulties. She spend hours observing children. This is one of the strengths of her work. Her conclusion, which is now supported by modern research that children pass through sensitive periods of development when they are particularly receptive to particular areas of learning. She saw children as active learners, just like Piaget. Here is a summary of Montessoris ideas She put together a structured teaching programme, which she based on her observations of children with learning difficulties. The work of an educator called Seguin, was also used by Maria Montessori.He ha d given manual dexterity exercises to children with physical disabilities. He done this as he believed that if they could learn to use their hands, they would then be able to get a mull over later on in life She designed a set of didactic materials, as she called them, which encouraged children to use their hands. She stressed the importance that children should work alone. She thought that this would help them become independent learners. For Montessori the highest point of a childs learning is what she like to call the polarisation of the attention.Montessori didnt see the point in play, didnt encourage childrens own ideas, until they had worked through all her graded learning sequence. Montessori has had more impact and influence on private schools than on the maintained sector of education. Common amount The Common Core of Skills and Knowledge for the childrens workforce often referred to as the Common Core sets out the basic skills and knowledge needed by people whose work (paid or voluntary) brings them into regular contact with children, young people and families. It supports integrated working by contributing to the use of a common language.The skills and knowledge included in the Common Core have been divided into six key areas Effective communication and encouragement with children, young people and families. Children and young people development. Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of the child. Supporting transitions Multi-agency working Sharing information It aims to promote quality, respect diversity and challenge stereotypes, helping to improve the life chances of all children and young people. Also providing more effective and integrated services. At the same time it cknowledges the rights of children and young people, and the role of parents, carers and families. (Source http//webarchive. nationalarchives. gov. uk and Children and Young Peoples Workforce, Meggitt, Kamen, Bruce, Grenier) 1. 3 Early years frameworks emphasise a personal and individual approach to learning and development because valuing childrens individuality, ideas and feelings is an important aspect in developing. It is necessary to meet the universal needs of all children, these are physical and biological needs such as food, drink, and shelter which are essential to survival.There is also psychological needs such as love, affection, secure and stable relationships, friendships intellectual stimulation, and independence. These are essential to maintain the individuals quality of life. A childs needs vary from child to child as each child is an individual and not any two are the same. It can be difficult to meet the needs of children in child care settings when they are grouped together harmonize to age. Some children will have developmental needs which are in line with the expected norm for their chronological age, whereas others will have needs which are characteristic of much older or younger children.Once recognised, the childs needs can the n be met. When doing this it is important to consider each childs age, physical maturity, intellectual abilities, emotional development, social skills, past experiences and relationships. 3. 2 Here is a list of barriers to participation for parents and carers Concerns about welfare, development and learning of a child Parents becoming angry or upset Parents and carers with other priorities Parents and carers having prejudicial attitudes Differences in rules and expectationsThis can be overcome by talking to the parent or carer in a way that shows concern for the child, and not criticising the parent or carer. The conversation can also be held in a private and confidential space, with a clear focus on the childs best interests. This can be overcome by staying calm and talking calmly offering some where private to talk. 3. 3 As carers are individuals there is no one way to have a partnership with parents/carers, there needs to be a whole range of ways for parents to access partnership s in order for them to find the one that is most suitable for them.These may include diaries to communicate between home and the setting, meetings within in the setting, workshops run by the setting, open days and parents evenings. 3. 4. Multi agency working helps the different services and professionals to join together to prevent problems occurring in the first place. This means that practitioners can work with parents and carers to help them access and organise the different services and provisions that may be helpful to them.